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抢注微博和社交网络用户名违法吗?

据媒体报道,曼德拉纪念中心日前说服一名英国网友将其以南非前总统曼德拉的名字创建的Twitter用户名出让。该中心发言人说:注册曼德拉用户名的网友毫不犹豫的同意了出让该用户名。不过在全世界20多个不同的社交网站中,都有人以曼德拉的名字创建了帐号。他说:“我们将继续鼓励那些以曼德拉名字创建域名的人,将他们的帐号交给曼德拉纪念中心管理。”

这则新闻让笔者想到了国内微博网站和社交网站也存在不少类似的用户名被抢注问题,很多有价值的名称,比如名人姓名、公司企业字号、商标被人在先注册,有时运营商也会主动注销部分他们认为有价值的被申请用户名,由此引发了不少纠纷。下面就谈谈笔者对这一问题的见解,先声明,只是一家之言,这个问题是新生事物,所以目前各国的法律都没有相关规定,即便伟大如纳尔逊曼德拉,其找回用户名的方式也是鼓励人们移交,而不是诉讼,这可以解释为曼德拉非常谦逊,另一种解释也足见这个问题的复杂性。

一、微博用户名与人名冲突。笔者自己就遇到了这个情况,在新浪微博搜索“游云庭”,有5个结果,第一个认证用户“游云庭律师”是笔者,但后面四个游云庭律师1、游云庭律师的新家、游云庭律师幸福都是其他人注册的,与笔者无关。但全世界叫游云庭的人应该只有我一个,而且职业是律师又有特定性,这些用户名侵权吗?

笔者认为虽然这些名字有侵犯笔者姓名权之嫌,但新浪给了笔者实名认证,找笔者的用户可以比较方便的识别出真正的游云庭律师,而且他们并没有在微博上以笔者名义发言或者实施误导他人的行为,所以也就没有发函让微博运营商删除。但如果其他用户个人发现有人在微博上冒充自己或者抢注了自己独一无二的名称,是可以向微博运营商发函投诉的,微博运营商收到函件后,应该通知实际注册用户名者,要求其给出合理申请理由,如果没有合理理由或者不理会通知的,则运营商应该删除该用户名并让真正的用户重新申请。

如果在先申请者有合理理由但权利人不认同的,则微博运营商应通知权利人通过法院起诉解决此事。什么是合理理由,比如确实同名同姓的人先申请了用户名,即便是名人也无权剥夺他人的用户名。再如人名与一些其他名词相同,此时,微博运营商也不应剥夺用户名。

二、微博用户名与企业商号、商标冲突。这个可以参照域名抢注的有关规定:并不是所有的与企业商号、商标相同的微博用户名就是侵权的。笔者认为,一般情况下,微博用户名和企业商号一样并不侵权,对于企业商号而言,主要对其进行保护的法律是《反不正当竞争法》,根据该法律的规定,只有蓄意混淆并对他人企业名称造成误导的行为才是不正当竞争行为。因此,只有抢注者对使用该微博用户名发布信息,让他人误以为是该企业所为时,抢注行为才构成侵权。

注册商标也是一样,商标有45个类别,代表不同种类的商品和服务,如果商标名称的微博名称被他人注册,但注册者并没有利用该用户名发布与经营商标产品和服务有关的信息,此时,并不构成商标侵权。当然,驰名商标除外,因为驰名商标的知名度特别高,可以进行特别保护。

三、微博用户名被运营商认为有特别价值的。此种情况特别复杂,最近,笔者在网上看到有网友抱怨其申请的部分用户名被运营商收回,这些名称并不是姓名、商号或者商标,未侵犯任何第三方的合法权益,只是运营商认为其有特殊价值。笔者认为,这种情况下运营商应慎重收回相关用户名。

用户与运营商间建立的是服务法律关系,即便是免费的用户,其合法权益也受到法律保护,如果运营商没有合理理由就收回用户名,则属于侵权行为,用户有权到法院对其进行起诉。实践中,即便用户协议中有运营商可以随时终止免费用户服务的规定,但如果运营商相关行为明显不公平的,法院一般还是会要求其给出合理解释,否则法院会判决运营商的相关行为无效以维护用户合法权益。

本文作者:游云庭,上海大邦律师事务所知识产权律师,电话:8621-52134900,Email: yytbest(@ gmail.com,本文仅代表个人观点。


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